Types of surgery
Laminectomy, discectomy and spinal fusion are the three main types of back surgery.
- Laminectomy – Laminectomy is a surgical operation to remove the back of one or more vertebrae, usually to give access to the spinal cord or to relieve pressure on nerves.
- Discectomy – Discectomy is surgical removal of the whole or a part of an intervertebral disc. A discectomy is also called open discectomy is the surgical removal of herniated disc material that presses on a nerve root system or the spinal cord. The procedure involves removing the central portion of an intervertebral disc, the nucleus pulpous, which causes pain by stressing the spinal cord or radiating nerves. In conjunction with the traditional discectomy, a laminotomy is often involved to permit access to the intervertebral disc. In this procedure, a small piece of bone (the lamina) is removed from the affected vertebra, allowing the surgeon to better see and access the area of disc herniation.
- Spinal Fusion – Spinal fusion also called spondylodesis or spondylosyndesis, Spinal Fusion is a neurosurgical or orthopedic surgical technique that joins two or more vertebrae. The actual motto is to stop the movement between two bones and prevent back pain. Once they’re fused, they no longer move like they used to. This keeps you from stretching nearby nerves, ligaments, and muscles that may have caused discomfort.
Infection In Spinal Cord
Spinal infections are rare or we can say little bit infections that can involve the intervertebral disc space, the vertebral bones, the spinal canal & adjacent soft tissues. Disc-ties refer to an infection of the intervertebral disc in the spine. Osteomyelitis refers to an infection of the vertebral bones in the spine. Infection may be caused by bacteria or fungal organism’s infection, viruses, or can occur after a spinal procedure or surgery.
Generally, infections are bacterial and spread to the spine through the bloodstream. Bacteria may spread through the bloodstream into the vertebral discs and affect this area cause discitis. As the infection progresses, the disc space degenerates. As the disc decays, the infection may spread into the vertebral bodies above and below the disc called osteomyelitis.
The bone, weakened by infection may also begin to collapse or crumble causing spinal deformity. In some cases, the infection or crumbling bones may push into the area for the nerves or spinal cord which may cause neurologic symptoms including numbness, weakness, tingling, pain, or bowel or bladder dysfunction.